Software designated as ‘open source’ is offered with all the programming code or “source code”, along with the rights to change and distribute it for any purpose. Benefits of this approach include rapid porting of the software to new platforms (operating systems) and the increased speed of collaborative development and bug-fixing. Prominent open source products include Linux, Android and the Firefox browser.
Operation Tovar is an international collaborative operation carried out by law enforcement agencies from multiple countries against the Gameover ZeuS botnet, which is believed by the investigators to have been used in bank fraud and the distribution of the CryptoLocker ransomware.
Read more about Operation Tovar via Wikipedia.
This is the software that talks directly to a PCs hardware and provides an environment for applications to be run on it. It manages resources such as memory, and access to devices including hard drives and keyboards. Common operating systems include Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X.
Running a processor, graphics card or memory at speeds faster than they are nominally designed to operate. This can result in considerably better performance, but brings with it increased power requirements and the risk of component failure or damage, including through overheating. Some processors are designed to prevent such modification, whereas others are designed specifically to make it easier.