In computing terms, cache is a quantity of fast memory or storage that transparently stores frequently used data kept on a slower medium such as a hard disk or slower memory. A computers CPU incorporates a small amount of cache to speed up access to your main system RAM, and you can use an SSD cache to speed up access to a hard drive.
Most commonly used in premium smartphones and tablets, capacitive touchscreens are able to sense the electrical conductivity of a human fingertip and use it to determine its location on the screen. Insulating materials such as gloves will prevent such touchscreens working but, unlike resistive alternatives, they don’t require you to exert physical pressure on the screen.
A CCFL inverter is an electrical inverter that supplies alternating current power to a cold cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL). CCFLs are often used as inexpensive light units in electrical devices that are powered by direct current sources such as batteries. CCFL inverters are small, have switchover efficiency over 80%, and offer adjustable output of light. They are widely used for backlights for LCDs, or for rear lighting in advertising signs.
Abbreviation of Common Gateway Interface, CGI is a specification for transferring information between a World Wide Web server and a CGI program. A CGI program is any program designed to accept and return data that conforms to the CGI specification. The program could be written in any programming language, including C, Perl, Java, or Visual Basic.
CGI programs are the most common way for Web servers to interact dynamically with users. Many HTML pages that contain forms, for example, use a CGI program to process the forms data once it’s submitted. Another increasingly common way to provide dynamic feedback for Web users is to include scripts or programs that run on the users machine rather than the Web server. These programs can be Java applets, Java scripts, or ActiveX controls. These technologies are known collectively as client-side solutions, while the use of CGI is a server-side solution because the processing occurs on the Web server.
One problem with CGI is that each time a CGI script is executed, a new process is started. For busy Web sites, this can slow down the server noticeably. A more efficient solution, but one that it is also more difficult to implement, is to use the server’s API, such as ISAPI or NSAPI. Another increasingly popular solution is to use Java servlets.
A Chromebook is a notebook computer running Googles Chrome OS operating system. Relying heavily on the cloud computing model, these PCs are designed to be used while connected to the internet, with almost all functions carried out via the Chrome browser rather than installing traditional applications, although some offline functionality is available.
This is a term used to describe online content designed to attract as many readers and gather as many clicks as possible, often through the use of teasing or sensationalised headlines. The term suggests that the content is less of a draw than the sexed up headline might initially indicate.
Simple pictures and symbols made available for computer users to add to their documents.
Cloud storage is a model of data storage in which the digital data is stored in logical pools, the physical storage spans multiple servers (and often locations), and the physical environment is typically owned and managed by a hosting company.
A form of online storage where individuals or companies can store data that can then be remotely accessed from any PC (or mobile device) with an active internet connection. The data may be physically stored on multiple servers and separated geographically, but it will appear in a single storage location to the user.
Examples include Dropbox and Mozy.
Used to maintain the settings stored in your PC’s BIOS or UEFI setup, such as the date and time, a CMOS battery usually resembles a medium-sized silver coin. It can be found installed in your PC’s motherboard.
Coaxial cable, or coax, is a type of cable that has an inner conductor surrounded by a tubular insulating layer, surrounded by a tubular conducting shield. Many coaxial cables also have an insulating outer sheath or jacket.
Abbreviated as CMS, a content management system, also called a Web management system is software or a group or suite of applications and tools that enable an organization to seamlessly create, edit, review and publish electronic text. Many content management systems offer a Web-based GUI, enabling publishers to access the CMS online using only a Web browser. Also, a CMS designed for Web publishing will provide options and features to index and search documents and also specify keywords and other metadata for search engine crawlers.
Named after a character in the Halo series of video games and voiced by the same actor, Cortana is Microsoft’s personal assistant. It’s built in to the Windows Phone 8.1 operating system and will respond to natural voice commands. It can access Bing, as well as the users personal information and settings, to provide personalised output and perform functions based on the users requirements, such as setting reminders.
Creeping featurism is a slang term used to describe a tendency for systems to become more complex over time as more features are added than were in the original design or plan. This term is widely used in software and hardware development, but is also used in non-technical industries. In software or hardware development, these added features often come at the expense of major design goals such as stability, simplicity or bug reduction. Creeping featurism is also called creeping featuritis.
Crowdfunding is the funding of a project by taking a small contributions from a large number of people in return for some form of reward, such as equity in your venture. This approach is most easily facilitated through use of the Internet which can quickly bring together a large number of like-minded contributors.
Popular Crowdfunding sites include Kickstarter and Indiegogo.
CryptoLocker is a ransomware trojan which targeted computers running Microsoft Windows, believed to have first been posted to the Internet on 5 September 2013.
CryptoLocker propagated via infected email attachments, and via an existing botnet; when activated, the malware encrypts certain types of files stored on local and mounted network drives using RSA public-key cryptography, with the private key stored only on the malwares control servers. The malware then displays a message which offers to decrypt the data if a payment (through either bitcoin or a pre-paid cash voucher) is made by a stated deadline, and threatened to delete the private key if the deadline passes. If the deadline is not met, the malware offered to decrypt data via an online service provided by the malwares operators, for a significantly higher price in bitcoin.
Although CryptoLocker itself is readily removed, files remained encrypted in a way which researchers considered unfeasible to break. Many said that the ransom should not be paid, but did not offer any way to recover files; others said that paying the ransom was the only way to recover files that had not been backed up. Some victims claimed that paying the ransom did not always lead to the files being decrypted.
CryptoLocker was isolated in late-May 2014 via Operation Tovar—which took down the Gameover ZeuS botnet that had been used to distribute the malware. During the operation, a security firm involved in the process obtained the database of private keys used by CryptoLocker, which was in turn used to build an online tool for recovering the keys and files without paying the ransom. It is believed that the operators of CryptoLocker successfully extorted a total of around $3 million from victims of the trojan. Other instances of encryption-based ransomware that have followed have used the “CryptoLocker” name (or variations), but are otherwise unrelated.